National Legal Framework for IDPs in Sri Lanka A Critical Analysis. Education in Sri Lanka; Ministry of Education. In 1938 the education system in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
Education in Sri Lanka - Wikipedia. Education in Sri Lanka has a long history that dates back two millennia. The Constitution of Sri Lanka provides for education as a fundamental right. Sri Lanka's population had an adult literacy rate of 9. Sri Lanka's modern educational system was brought about by its integration into the British Empire in the 1. Education currently falls under the control of both the Central Government and the Provincial Councils, with some responsibilities lying with the Central Government and the Provincial Council having autonomy for others. Administration. These divisions have led to a high degree of mismanagement and inefficiency over the years.
History. It is believed that the Sanskrit language was brought to the island from North India as a result of the establishment of the Buddhism in the reign of King. Devanampiya Tissa from the Buddhist monks sent by Emperor Asoka of India.
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Since then an education system evolved based around the Buddhist temples and pirivenas (monastic colleges), the latter primarily intended for clergy (even to this day) and higher education. Evidence of this system is found on the Mahawamsa and Dipavamsa, the Chronicle of Lanka that deals with the history of the island from the arrival of Prince. Vijaya and his followers in the 6th century BC. The Anglican Church's monopoly of Government Schools and in education ended following the Colebrooke Commission set up by the British administration.
Primary and secondary schools. This is regarded as the beginning of the government's schooling system in the island. It started with the establishment of the Royal College in Colombo (formerly the Colombo Academy) and lead to the formation of several single sex schools constructed during the colonial period, by the British. Thomas' College in Mount Lavinia and Trinity College in Kandy.
The education in vernacular schools was largely free due to government grants to cover the cost of teaching and local philanthropists providing the buildings, equipment and the books. The order did not apply to denominational Missionary schools and they continued to function unceasingly. The Minister of Education, late Hon. Kannangara, and the Executive Committee of Education which included members such as H. Amarasuriya took the initiative in establishing free education. Under this initiative the government established Madhya Maha Vidyalayas (MMV, Central Colleges) that were scattered around the island to provide education to all.
The medium was either Sinhala or Tamil. In 1. 94. 2 a special committee was appointed to observe the education system and, among the suggestions that followed, the following play an important role: i. Make available to all children a good education free of charge, so that education ceases to be a commodity purchasable only by the urban affluent. Make national languages the media of instruction in place of English so that opportunities for higher education, lucrative employment open only to small number of the urban affluent, would become available to others as well. Rationalize the school system so that educational provision is adequate, efficient and economical.
Ensure that every child is provided with instruction in the religion of his/her parents. Protect teachers from exploitation by managers of schools. Make adequate provision for adult education. After independence, the number of schools and the literacy rate substantially increased.
According to the Ministry of Statistics, today there are approximately 9,8. During the colonial times, late national heroes like Anagarika Dharmapala with foreigners like Colonel. Henry Steel Olcott and Madame Blavatsky of the Buddhist. Theosophical Society installed Buddhist schools to foster Sinhala students with an English education rich in Buddhist values and to bring Buddhism to life, at a time when it was slowly fading away.
Most of these schools were established in the capitals of the major provinces of Sri Lanka. The first of these were Ananda College, Colombo (formerly English Buddhist School); Dharmaraja College, Kandy (formerly Kandy Buddhist High School); Mahinda College, Galle (formerly Galle Buddhist Theosophical Society School). Joseph's College, St Bridget's Convent, St Peter's College, St. Anthony's College, Kandy and the Joseph Vaz College named after the Sri Lankan saint Joseph Vaz.
The earliest schools such as Richmond College, Galle, Jaffna Central College, Wesley College, Colombo, Kingswood College, Kandy(formerly Boys' High School,Kandy); Girls' High School, Kandy and Methodist College, Colombo were started by the Methodist Church. However, the established schools who had their origins in the colonial era dominate social life in Sri Lanka mainly due networks of old boys and old girls. These include the change of the primary medium of education to the national languages, nationalization of private schools and the introduction of national/provisional school system. The origins of the modern university system in Sri Lanka dates back to 1. University College, the Ceylon University College was established at the former premises of Royal College Colombo affiliated to the University of London.
However, the beginning of modern higher education in Ceylon was in 1. Ceylon Medical School. The university was in Colombo. Several years later a second campus was built in Peradeniya. The University of Ceylon became the University of Sri Lanka follow in the University of Ceylon Act No. This gave way for creation of separate universities after the Universities Act No. Even though new universities of independent identities were created, the government maintained its direct control and centralized administration though the University Grants Commission.
Lalith Athulathmudali as Minister of Education developed an initiative to develop the higher education of the country in the 1. Mahapola Fund, established by him provided scholarship and much- needed founding to higher education institution to this day.
Until amendments to the University Act were made in 1. Primary and secondary education. Primary education lasts five to six years (Grades 1- 5) and at the end of this period, the students may elect to write a national exam called the Scholarship exam. This exam allows students with exceptional skills to move on to better schools. After primary education, the junior secondary level (referred to as middle school in some schools) lasts for 4 years (Grades 6- 9) followed by 2 years (Grades 1. General Certificate of Education (G. C. E) Ordinary Level (O/Ls).
According to the Sri Lankan law, it is compulsory that all children go to school till grade 9 (age 1. However, the Ministry of Education strongly advises all students to continue with their studies at least till the G. C. E Ordinary Level.
Students who are pursuing tertiary education must pass the G. C. E O/Ls in order to enter the collegiate level to study for another 2 years (grades 1.
G. C. E Advanced Level. On successful completion of this exam, students can move on to tertiary education, there for the GCE A/Ls is the university entrance exam in Sri Lanka. The elite colleges in major cities such as Colombo and Kandy, teach in all three media. Normal ages. Currently there are 9,8. Pirivenas. However the old schools which had been around since the colonial times were retained by the central government, thus creating three types of government schools; National Schools.
Provincial Schools. Pirivenas (Schools for Buddhist priests)National schools.
One of the leading national schools in Colombo. National schools come under the direct control of the Ministry of Education and therefore have direct funding from the ministry. Most of these schools were established during the colonial period and therefore are established institutions.
These few are referred to as famous schools or elite schools since they have a rich history and better maintained facilities than the average public school. This is mainly due the support of their alumni. In recent years newer schools and several central colleges have been upgraded to national schools from time to time, thereby making the total number of national schools 3. Funded and controlled by the local governments many suffer from poor facilities and a shortage of teachers.
Piriven. These have been the centers of secondary and higher education in ancient times for lay people as well. Today 5. 61 Piriven are funded and maintained by the Ministry of Education. Young priests undergo training at these pirivenas prior to being their Ordination and study for GCE O/L and A/L examinations. They may gain entrance to State Universities for higher religious studies. Non- government schools. These private schools follow the local curriculum set up by the Ministry of Education in the local language mediums of Sinhala, Tamil or English. Many of the private schools have access to newer facilities than state run schools.
Currently there are 6. Private schools (registered before 1. Assisted Private Schools (also known as semi- government schools) and 3. Private Schools, in addition to the Government Schools. Starting in the late 1. Ministry of Education as it comes under the Board of Investment (BOI). The schools are mainly for the children of the expatriate community, charge high tuition fees and can therefore provide good facilities and high standards.
The majority of International schools prepares students for the Edexcel. General Certificate of Education (IGCSE) Ordinary, Advanced Subsidiary (AS) and Advanced (A2) Level examinations, which is the most popular qualification.
Preparation for Cambridge International Examinations is also offered by a few schools but it is less popular. Both exams are offered under the supervision of the British Council, whereas some schools offer a direct partnership with the examination body in order to improve standards. Tuition. In recent years this has become a lucrative enterprise, which has resulted in successive governments attempting to regulate it.